The honeybee population appears to have survived the winter in better shape than a year ago, but still faces several significant threats, a Purdue University honeybee specialist said.
After the brutally cold, wet winter of 2013-14 in much of the U.S., observers reported one of the largest bee die-offs ever recorded, said Greg Hunt, professor of entomology.
This year, though, "seems much better than the year before, even though it was another cold winter," Hunt said.
Honeybees are essential to agriculture because they pollinate food plants such as fruits, nuts and vegetables. According to USDA, honeybee pollination is worth about $15 billion a year in crop production.
According to Bayer CropScience, global managed honey bee populations have increased by 40% over the past 60 years, but Hunt says the United States has lost about one-third of its hives annually.
Other estimates have honeybee colonies in the U.S. dropping from about 4 million in the 1970s to about 2.5 million now.
Reasons for bee declines aren't entirely clear, Hunt said, although there are likely a number of contributing factors, including a phenomenon known as colony collapse disorder, when adult worker bees disappear from their hives for no apparent reason, leaving the immature bees in the colony to starve.
"Although colony collapse disorder has generated a lot of attention, symptoms haven't been seen in Indiana or in other states in the past two years," Hunt said.
A class of insecticides called neonicotinoids, commonly used on soybean and corn seeds, has also been identified as a threat. In a 2012 study, Hunt and other researchers found high levels of concentrated neonicotinoids in dead bees around agricultural fields.
It is believed the neonicotinoids are absorbed by the talc used in planting and spread to surrounding plants and soil when the talc is released as exhaust from the planting machinery, a statement from Purdue said.
Research on neonicotinoids is conflicting; some recent studies have indicated that certain neonic pesticides in real-world doses are unlikely to harm bees, yet another literature review by an environmental group suggests they are unsafe for bees.
The EPA is in the process of reviewing neonicotinoids with special attention on how they may impact bee populations.
Another significant danger facing the bee population is a parasite known as a Varroa mite. The mites feed on bee larva and transmit viruses. If left unchecked, a mite infestation can destroy an entire colony.
The reddish-brown mites are tiny, but visible to the unaided eye. Beekeepers who notice too many mites in their hive should use a commercially available pesticide designed specifically to control Varroa mites, Hunt said.
"The earlier an infestation is identified, the better chance you have of saving the colony," he said.
Replacing a hive that has been lost or damaged by Varroa mites or other causes can be expensive and time-consuming, Hunt said.
"Normally, the bees are ready to pollinate in mid-May," he said. "If a beekeeper has to replace a colony, pollination could be delayed until mid-June."