GENEVA - After nearly two decades of trying, Russia gained approval Friday to join the World Trade Organization, a move likely to boost its economy and that of its biggest trading partner, the European Union, at a time of global financial turmoil.
The vote by international trade ministers also provides a measure of victory for Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, who faces popular discontent after allegations of fraud in the recent parliamentary elections.
Russia has been the only member of the Group of 20 leading world economies still outside the 153-nation WTO. Once it formally joins - presumably early next year after ratification from the Russian Duma - Moscow will be subject to the Geneva-based body's rules for international trade and settling disputes.
The 27-nation EU is Russia's biggest trading partner for agriculture, fuels, mining and manufacturing. The EU buys 52% of Russia's exports, including the fossil fuels that keep Europe running. Russia, in turn, is the third-biggest customer for EU exports, after the U.S. and China.
Russia's WTO membership is expected to quickly increase EU exports by some €4 billion ($5.2 billion) a year, EU trade officials say. Under the agreement, Russians will be able to buy European-made goods at far lower prices and to sell their oil and gas more efficiently.
Nigeria's finance minister, Olusegun Aganga, was chairman of the WTO conference, where international representatives agreed by consensus to accept Russia's bid. He noted that Russia was the last of the so-called BRICS emerging countries - Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa - to join the trade body.
"That tells you how important the WTO is," he said.
Elvira Nabiullina, Russia's minister of economic development, hailed the deal and said Russia is ready to help counter the risks of the global economic slowdown. "We are ready to counter these risks actively," she told WTO trade ministers.
U.S. Trade Representative Ron Kirk said the development "represents a great cause for celebration."
"Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization is good for Russia, we believe it's good for the United States, and we believe it's good for all members of the WTO," he said.
Russia has spent 18 years trying to join the WTO.
It first had to reach bilateral agreements with more than a third of WTO's members. Moscow agreed to provide annual reports to other members on its continuing privatization, for example, and to gradually lower its average tariff ceiling to 7.8% from its current 10%.
A final hurdle to joining the WTO was the Swiss-mediated deal that Russia signed with Georgia, its neighbor with whom it waged a brief war in 2008, to allow a neutral company to monitor all trade between the two nations.
Russia's membership takes effect 30 days after it notifies WTO that the Russian Duma has ratified the move.
The vote Friday gives Prime Minister Putin a victory to point to at a time when protesters are demanding a rerun of a disputed parliamentary poll on Dec. 4 that enabled Mr. Putin's United Russia party to retain a slim majority of seats. But it's unlikely that WTO membership will end Russian dissidents' grievances with Mr. Putin and his party, which has long been accused of corruption.
In the longer run, experts say, WTO membership would provide a boost for Russia's heavily state-managed economy by giving outside investors more confidence because the nation would be subject to international trade rules.
"The EU has high expectations of Russia as a responsible partner able to respect rules," EU trade chief Karel De Gucht told the WTO.
International Chamber of Commerce secretary-general Jean-Guy Carrier said WTO membership will change the way the world does business with Russia.
"First of all, [by] making sure that there is a clear set of rules for investors in Russia, for companies operating in Russia, and for Russian companies also that want to export to the rest of the world," he said.
"I expect it will have effects similar to the opening of China 10 years ago, where there was a tremendous amount of new economic activity into China itself in terms of investment."